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Glossary combined from various Sahaj Marg publications. Please note that alternative common spellings are given after some words, e.g.: aavarana or avaran, and the phonetic spelling of each Sanskrit word is put in parentheses after the word, e.g. jiva or jivatma (jivaatmaa).

aalayam:  Tamil word for a Hindu temple.

aavarana or avaran:  Layers of grossness; coverings.

abhyas or abhyasa (abhyaas):  Practice.

abhyasi (abhyaasi):  Aspirant; one who practices yoga in order to achieve union with God.

absentia or in absentia: In the absence of, or while absent.

abudiyat:  The subdued. Humility or subordination of the utmost degree which implies complete readiness to receive the impress of another; a state of servitude or submission.

achara (aachaara):  Practice.

acharya (aachaarya):  Religious teacher.

Adhara (Aadhaara):  The Base.

adhibhautika (aadhibhautika):  Happiness or misery caused by the elements of Nature: earth, air, fire, water and ether. One of the three forms of happiness and misery described in the scriptures, the other two being: adhidaivika and adhyatmika.

adhidaivika (aadhidaivika):  Happiness or misery caused by the celestial, fate or the gods. One of the three forms of happiness and misery described in the scriptures, the other two being: adhibhautika and adhyatmika.

adhishtana (adhisthaana):  Base, establishment, realm.

adhyatmika (aadhyaatmika):  Happiness or misery caused by one’s own self. One of the three forms of happiness and misery described in the scriptures, the other two being: adhibhautika and adhidaivika.

adhyatmikta (aadhyaatmikta):  Spirituality.

adi (aadi):  Original.

Adi-Guru (Aadi-Guru):  Original guru; Lalaji, in Sahaj Marg.

Adimaya (aadi maayaa):  The region of the first maya.

Adi Shankara:  Eighth century Hindu philosopher who established the doctrine of advaita.

adi tattva (aadi tattva):  Original element.

aditya (aaditya):  The sun. The name of the deity that shines like the sun.

aditya hridayam:  A Sanskrit chant praising the sun; a prayer to the Sun God. (From the Ramayana.)

advaita or adwaita:  State of unity (non-duality).

agamic initiation:  Initiation according to the Agamas. The Agamas are a body of spiritual literature dealing with temple rituals, temple architecture, etc.

agni:  Fire, the fire element or principle.

agniban (agnibaana): The fire-missile.

agni naadi:  The fire naadi (current or channel).

agya chakra:  See ajna chakra.

Aham:  I.

Aham Brahmasmi (aham brahmaasmi):  I am Brahman/God.

ahamta:  Egoism.

ahankar or ahankara or ahamkara (ahamkaara): Ego.

ahimsa:  Non-violence.

aikya:  Oneness, unity.

aikya bhava:  Feeling of oneness.

ajapa (ajapaa):  Meditation without utterance of a mantra.

ajna chakra or agya chakra (aajnaa chakra):  The point located between the eyebrows. Trikuti.

ajnani (ajnaani):  Ignorant.

akarma:  Non-action.

akarta:  Non-doer; one who does not do.

akash or akasha (aakaasha):  Space, sky. The space element or principle.

akasha naadi:  The space, or etheric, naadi.

Akbar: Sixteenth century Mughal emperor of India.

Akka (akkaa):  Respectful address to an older woman meaning “elder sister”.

aksi:  Reflected condition.

anaadi:  Without beginning.

anahata (anaahata) or anahad:  The sound produced in the heart of its own accord; heart chakra.

anand or ananda or anandam (aananda or aanandam):  Bliss.

anandamaya kosha:  Sheath of bliss.

anant(a):  Infinity or endlessness.

Anant-Ki-Or:  Towards Infinity

anansuyatmaka buddhi:  Mind free of jealousy.

anar (anaar):  Firework.

anasuya:  One who has no jealousy.

anavastha (anavasthaa):  Endless regression.

anda:  Egg; Macrocosm.

angas:  Limbs, parts or aspects.

anoraniyan:  Smaller than the smallest.

annam:  Food.

annamaya kosha:  Physical sheath or food sheath (matter).

antariksha:  The middle region which shines like a star (antar–middle, and iksha–star).

antaryamin (antaryaamin):  The God within; the In-Dweller.

anubhava:  Intuitional perception or personal experience in the realm of Nature or God.

anubhava shakti:  Intuitive Capacity, capacity acquired by experience.

anumana:  Hypothesis, hypothetical.

anushtanam:  Performance of daily rituals.

ap:  Water or water principle.

Apara Brahman:  Determinate Absolute (see Saguna Brahman).

apara prakriti (apara prakriti):  Lower form of prakriti.

aparigraha:  Non-covetousness.

appa:  Father; affectionate term, like papa. Equivalent to the Hebrew Abba.

arhat:  One of the qualifications of Gautama the Buddha. One who is fit; one who deserves.

Arjuna:  Lord Krishna’s devotee, and one of the Pandavas, to whom Lord Krishna gave the Gita in the epic Mahabharata.

asana or aasana:  Posture.

ashabda:  Non-sound.

ashanti (ashaanti):  Disquiet; restless; having no peace.

Ashoka:  Third century B.C. emperor of India.

ashram or ashrama:  'Ashram' comes from the Sanskrit 'Shreyas' which applies, in the spiritual sense, to the growth of benefits which are connected to the higher level. An ashram is also a kind of refuge, a place of retreat from today's life. Ashrams in Sahaj Marg are dedicated to meditation only, all other activities are normally not allowed in the ashram. An ashram is usually charged by the Master, who creates a special atmosphere of spirituality conducive to meditation.

Ashtanga Yoga (ashtaanga yoga):  Patanjali described yoga as having eight limbs: yama – good conduct, as per Sahaj Marg; niyama (regularity, observances); asana (posture); pranayama (breath); pratyahara (inner withdrawal); dharana (mental focus); dhyana (meditation; and samadhi (original condition, balance).

astheyam:  Non-stealing.

astral form:  See sookshma sharir.

asuya:  Jealousy.

atma or atman (aatman):  Soul.

atma chakra:  Heart chakra. In Sahaj Marg, the second, or soul point.

atmanand:  Bliss of soul.

atma tatva (aatma tattva):  The essence of the soul.

Atri Rishi:  Ancient saint of Vedic lore.

aumSee omkar.

Aurobindo:  An Indian spiritual teacher who lived in the first half of the 20th century.

avadhuta (avadhoota):  A state of mad ecstasy; a person in this state, generally revered as an elevated soul, but really a person with spiritual aspirations who has become ‘fixed’ at a certain level because their development has been arrested.

avakasha (avakaasha):  Time.

avarana or avaran:  Layers of grossness; coverings.

avastha (avasthaa):  Condition; state.

avatar (avataara):  Incarnation of a Divine soul.

avidya (avidyaa):  Ignorance.

Avittam:  The name of a star, Dhanishtha in Sanskrit. On the day of this star in the Indian calendar, in the month of August or September, the Brahmins remove the old sacred thread and wear a new one.

avyakrita (avyaakrita):  Not manifest.

avyakta gati:  Undifferentiated state. State where one is completely liberated from maya (maayaa) limitations.

Ayodhya:  Birthplace of Lord Rama.

Babar or Babur:  Sixteenth century founder of the Mughal empire in India.

Babuji:  Affectionate name for Shri Ram Chandra of Shahjahanpur, the second guru of the Sahaj Marg system, disciple of Lalaji and the Founder-President of Shri Ram Chandra Mission, the Raja Yoga system of Sahaj Marg.

baka:  A spiritual condition.

Basant Panchami or Vasanta Panchami:  Fifth day of spring in the lunar calendar. It was also the time of Lalaji's birth in 1873, falling on February 2nd in the Gregorian calendar.

Beejmantra (beejamantra):  A mantra, sacred word or syllable, in seed form.

bhaava:  Attitude of mind.

Bhagavad Gita:  See Gita.

bhajan:  Songs sung or chanted in praise of God.

bhakta:  Devotee.

Bhakta Surdas:  A 15th century blind saint devoted to Lord Krishna.

bhakti:  Devotion.

bhajan:  Songs sung or chanted in praise of God.

bhamuk:  Illusion.

bhandara:  A spiritual gathering or celebration.

Bhaarata:  Another name for India.

Bharata:  Lord Rama's brother.

bhavas (bhaavas):  Expression of an inner condition; attitudes of the mind.

bhavsagar (bhava-saagara):  The ocean of life or existence; the present life.

bhedan:  Piercing.

Bheeshma Pitamaha or Bhishma Pitamaha (Bhishma Pitaamaaha):  The grand uncle of the Pandavas and Kauravas in the Mahabharata. He endured a very long life.

bhikku:  A male Buddhist monastic priest.

Bhima (Bheema):  One of the five Pandava brothers in the epic Mahabharata, known for his great strength.

bhog or bhogam or bhoga (bhogaa):  The process of undergoing the effects of impressions; experience; enjoyment.

bhrumadhya:  Between the eyebrows.

bhuh:  One of the states of consciousness.

Bhuma (Bhoomaa):  Absolute; Ultimate; Base.

bhumika (bhoomika):  Stage in spiritual evolution.

Bhumi puja (Bhoomi poojaa):  Land dedication ceremony, where prayers are offered to Mother Earth and the spirit of the land.

bhuta (bhoota):  Element.

bhuvah:  One of the states of consciousness.

bismil:  Auspicious beginning.

bodh:  Wisdom.

Brahm or Brahman:  Centre; God; Ultimate.

Brahma (Brahmaa):  One of the Trinity of gods in Hinduism: Brahma (the creator), Vishnu (the preserver), and Shiva (the destroyer).

brahmacharya:  Student phase of life; celibacy; literally "dwelling in Brahm".

brahmachari (brahmachaari):  One who follows brahmacharya.

brahma-gandha:  Divine smell.

brahmagati:  Divine state, state of Brahman.

Brahma-kama:  Love of God; desire for God.

Brahma-loka:  World of the Divine.

brahmanand (brahmaananda):  Supreme bliss.

brahmanda (brahmaanda):  Astral world; cosmos.

brahmanda mandal (brahmaanda mandal) or brahmanda desh:  Mental sphere, supra-material sphere, cosmic region; sphere where everything manifests under a subtle shape before taking place in the material world.

brahmandi sur:  Cosmic sounds, celestial vibrations.

brahmarandhra:  A point or opening in the crown of the head.

Brahma-rasa:  Divine pleasure, enjoyment, or taste.

Brahma-sabda:  Divine sound.

Brahma-sparsa:  Divine touch.

Brahmin:  The traditional Hindu caste of priests and teachers; someone born into this caste.

brahmopadesha:  Initiation; teaching of higher knowledge about Brahman.

bhruvormadhya:  Point between the eyebrows, used in certain Yogic systems as a point for concentration.

Buddham saranam gacchami:  "I seek refuge in the Buddha."

buddhi:  Intellect.

cakra:  See chakra.

chaitanya or chaitanyata (chaitanyataa):  Consciousness, including a subtle activity.

chakra:  Center of super-vital forces located in different parts of the body, figuratively called lotus.

chanchal:  Fickle.

chela:  Student or disciple.

Chhand (Chhandas):  Prosady, the different types of meter used in poetry.

chit or chitta:  Consciousness.

chit lake:  Another name for brahmanda mandal.

choultry:  A free rest house for pilgrims or travellers.

cleaning:  Specific meditation technique prescribed to be practiced at the end of each day by a Sahaj Marg abhyasi, wherein the will power is used to remove subtle distortions (vikshep), coverings (avarana) and impurities (mala) that impede spiritual development.

crore:  10,000,000.

daana:  Charity.

dakshina (dakshinaa):  South; also offering by disciple to Guru for training received.

dakshinayana:  The six months of the sun's southern path.

dama:  2nd Sampatti; control of the senses and indriyas.

dard:  An Urdu word meaning the pain of restlessness.

darshan(a):  Vision of someone’s inner Reality; seeing.

dasha (dashaa):  State; condition.

Dasharatha:  Father of Lord Rama; great king of the solar dynasty.

Dashavatara (Dashaavataara):  The ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu.

Dayal region:  The region of compassion. In Sahaj Marg it stands for where there is this Base, motionless condition, Supreme or the top most support.

dayalu (dayaalu):  Kind person.

deha:  Body.

deva or devata (devataa):  A god or deity; cosmic personality.

deva vani (deva vaani):  Divine voice.

devata (devataa):  A god; cosmic personality.

Devi:  Goddess.

devi upsaka:  A devi (Mother-Goddess) worshipper. Tantrik worship.

dhaam:  Body, or abode.

dharana or dharna:  Mental focus (sixth limb of Patanjali's yoga).

dharma:  A term with many applications, depending on the context: duty; righteousness; destined way; truth; virtue; that which upholds.

dharma-artha:  Wealth earned in a righteous way.

dharmaja:  One born of righteousness. Also, first-born child.

dharmakaya:  The dharma body, body built of righteousness.

dharmam chara:  Perform dharma or righteous deeds; follow dharma.

dharma shastra (dharma shaastra):  Texts which prescribe codes of conduct for people.

dhoti:  A long cloth worn by men around the waist.

dhi:  An element of samadhi; sama, meaning balance, and adhi, meaning original or ancient. See samadhi.

Dhritarashtra (Dhritaraastra):  Father of the Kaurava brothers in the epic Mahabharata.

dhruvagati:  State of dhruva. See Dhruva.

Dhruva:  Highly evolved soul. First or lowest level of cosmic functionary. Below the Dhruvadhipati.

Dhruvadhipati (dhruvaadhipati):  Godly functionary of great calibre who directs the work of the Dhruvas. Below the Parishad.

dhyan (dhyaan):  Meditation; seventh limb of Patanjali's yoga.

diksha:  Initiation.

Dipaw(v)ali or Diwali:  Hindu religious festival celebrated in the autumn. Also called “festival of lights”.

divya drishti:  Divine vision.

Drishta (drishtaa):  Seer.

durga chakra:  Durga plexus.

Durvasa:  See Rishi Durvaasa.

Duryodhana:  Eldest of the Kaurava brothers in the epic Mahabharata.

dvaita or dwaita:  Duality.

dvandva:  Dualities; the pairs of opposites (e.g., good-bad, pleasure-pain).

dvividha (dvividhaa):  Dilemma.

Dwapara Yuga (Dwaapara Yuga):  The third of the four yugas in the Hindu religion. Lord Krishna belongs to this period.

dwividha or dvividha:  Dualism; two types, or two-fold.

dyau:  The heavens.

ekaagra-vritti or ekagra vritti:  The tendency to fix our attention on one thing at a time.

fana:  A Persian term for a spiritual condition. Also, destroyed or sacrificed. See laya.

fana in fana:  A Persian term for a spiritual condition.

fanaiyat:  Mergence; dissolution of the self.

Farhad:  The lover in Farhad and Shirin, one of the most popular ancient love stories of the Middle East.

Fatehgarh:  Birthplace of Lalaji Maharaj. City in Uttar Pradesh about sixty kilometres from the birthplace of Babuji in Shahjahanpur.

gaddi:  A mattress for sitting on the floor. In politics, the expression "to aspire for the gaddi" means to seek to be the leader of an organization.

gandha:  Smell.

Gandhari (Gaandhaari):  Mother of the Kaurava brothers in the epic Mahabharata.

Ganga (Gangaa):  The river Ganges; considered to have holy properties including the ability to wash away sins.

Gayathri:  One of the Vedic mantras. Also the name given to Chariji’s home in Chennai.

Gayathri upadesh:  Teaching of the Gayathri mantra.

ghairat:  Bashfulness; shame; feeling oneself to be at fault.

Gita  (Geetaa):  The Bhagavad Gita, or Song of God. Divine knowledge given to Arjuna by Lord Krishna in the epic Mahabharata.

gopis or gopikas (gopikaas):  Group of cow-herd girls famous for their unconditional love of Lord Krishna.

granthi:  Knot.

grihastha:  One who leads a worldly life; a householder.

grihastha ashram (grihastha aashrama):  Conditions of a household life.

gunas:  The three qualities of Nature in Indian schools of philosophy: sattva (balance or poise); rajas (activity, egoism and selfishness); and tamas (inactivity, sloth, procrastination).

guru:  Master, who transmits light, knowledge; a spiritual teacher.

gurubhai:  Fellow disciple; a brother disciple who has the same guru.

guru dakshina (dakshinaa):  Offering to the guru by the disciple for training received, generally at the end of the training.

gurumat(a):  Disciples who obey the commands of the Master in all matters and try to submit to his will in all possible ways.

Guru Nanak:  The founder of the Sikh religion and the first of the Sikh gurus. He lived in the 15th and 16th centuries.

guru pashu:  People who become devoted to the Master's physical form.

Guru Purnima (Guru Poornimaa):  Auspicious day to be in the physical presence of your guru. The full moon day of the Hindu calendar month of Ashad, in July or August.

guru sthan:  The place where the guru sits during satsangh.

gyana:   See jnana.

gyani:  See jnani.

hallate fana:  The condition of mergence.

halwa:  A rich sweet dessert.

Hand aufs herz:  An oath for truth, meaning “hand on the heart.”

Hanuman (Hanumaan):  Lord Rama’s faithful servant in the epic Ramayana.

harijan:  Children of God; fifth caste.

Hatha Yoga:  The practice of yoga concerning the body.

havan:  Offering of an oblation with fire. Also called Homa.

Hindi:  Language of North India, but commonly spoken throughout most of the country.

Hiranyagarbha:  Considered to be a name of Brahma, and the soul of the universe. Literally means ‘golden womb’ or ‘golden egg’ or ‘golden foetus’ – the source of the creation of the universe, mentioned in the Rig Veda.

homeopathic dose:  A very small quantity of something, as used in the dosages of homeopathic medicines.

Holi:  Ancient Hindu festival of colours. In Complete Works of Ram Chandra Volume 3, the real significance of Holi is given by Lalaji to Babuji on 18 March 1946.

hridaya chakra:  Heart plexus.

hylem shadow:  Spiritual shadow located on the right side of the sternum.

illat, killat, zillat:  A phrase meaning that to thrive spiritually a person should have a little less than good health, a little less money than they need, and constant criticism.

Indra:  The lord of the gods in the Hindu religion.

indriyas:  Ten senses or organs of Indian philosophy, subdivided as jnana and karma indriyas. The former are five senses pertaining to perception, knowledge or wisdom, while the latter are five senses pertaining mainly to action.

invertendo:  Term coined by Babuji to describe the apparent inversions Truth undergoes as it moves through higher levels of abstraction.

Isha:  God, as Ruler.

Ishwar (Eeshwar) or Ishwara:  Determinate Absolute. God as Existence endowed with all the most subtle attributes.

ishwari mandal (eeshwari mandal):  Determinate Absolute’s region.

jada:  Inert matter.

Jada Bharata:  A king who renounced his kingdom and practised meditation in the forest, but had to be reborn because of his attachment with a deer and in the subsequent birth was born as a Brahmana and instructed a king. The story appears in Bhagavata Purana.

jada samadhi (jada samaadhi):  Lower level of samadhi; the condition of absorption where a person is like an inert object.

jadata (jadataa):  Inertness.

jagat guru:  World teacher.

jagirdars (jaageerdaars):  The recipients of jagirs, land grants from a monarch, which they ruled and taxed on behalf of the monarch.

jagrat avastha (jaagrat avasthaa):  Waking state.

Jahangir:  Nur-ud-din Mohammad Salim, known by his imperial name Jahangir (1569 – 1627), was the fourth Mughal Emperor of India who ruled from 1605 until his death in 1627.

jal (jala):  Water; the water element or principle.

Jalaluddin Rumi:  The 13th-century Persian poet and Sufi mystic.

jal-dan:  Prayerful offering of water.

janah:  One of the states of consciousness.

janma:  Birth.

japa:  Repetition of a mantra.

jayanthi:  Birth anniversary.

jhankar (jhankaara):  A ringing sound.

ji:  A term of respect at the end of a man’s name.

jiva or jivatma (jivaatmaa):  Individual incarnated soul. Life.

jivanmukta:  A liberated person living in a body.

jivan mukti or jivan moksha (jeevan mukti or jeevan moksha):  Liberation while alive in the physical body.

jnana (jnaana):  Gnosticism; knowledge.

jnana-bhumika (jnaana bhoomika):  Stage or state of knowledge.

jnana-hinata (jnaana-heenata):  Absence of knowledge or un-knowledge.

jnani (jnaani):  Gnostic; one who is wise; one who has divine knowledge.

jyoti:  Splendor, effulgence.

jyotimaya:  Form of effulgence.

kaayastha or kayastha:  A Hindu sub-caste of clerks and scribes to which both Lalaji and Babuji belonged.

Kabir or Kabirdas:  See Saint Kabir.

Kal (kaala):  Time.

kalakshapaka:  A person who wastes time.

Kalapurusha (kaalapurusha):  Time god.

Kalatattva (kaala-tattva):   The Time element.

kal-chakra (kaala-chakra):  Wheel of time.

Kaliyuga:  The current yuga (epoch or era) according to Hindu cosmology.

kama (kaama):  Desire; love; passion.

kantha chakra:  Throat plexus.

karana (kaarana):  Cause; causal.

karana deha (kaarana deha):  Causal body. See karana sharir.

karana sharir (kaarana shareera):  Causal body.

karana tattva (kaarana tattva):  Causal element.

karma:  Action.

karma indriyas:  Organs or senses of action.

kasbi:  Acquired condition.

Kayastha (kaayastha):  A Hindu caste that traditionally worked as scribes, keeping public records and accounts.

khudahafis:  Goodbye.

King RahuganaSee Jada Bharata.

kirtan:  Religious hymn, usually in praise of some deity.

Kootastha:  Supreme soul.

kosha:  Sheath. The five sheaths that contain the essence and together comprise a human being are the food-sheath, breath-sheath, mind-sheath, knowledge-sheath, and bliss-sheath.

Krishna:  See Lord Krishna.

Krishna Chakra:  A Divine weapon of Lord Krishna used in the Mahabharata; Krishna’s wheel; see Sudarshan Chakra.

kriya:  Action.

krodha:  Anger.

kshatriyas:  The Hindu warrior caste.

kshipta:  Disturbed condition of mind due to sensations such as hunger, thirst, anger, sorrow, desire of fame and wealth.

kshobh or kshobha:  Jerk or vibration. State of disturbance; loss of equilibrium; stir caused by the will of God to effect creation.

Kuchela:  Also called Sudaama, a childhood friend of Lord Krishna who Krishna raised from poverty later in life because of his true friendship.

Kumbhak (kumbhaka):  Retention of air inside the body.

kunda:  Referring to the kundalini; a circle, or circular shaped depression; also, a bowl-shaped vessel.

kundalini:  The power which is coiled like a serpent at the base of the spine.

kurbeteye haq:  Going back to the source.

Kurma (Koorma):  Tortoise. The second avatar of Vishnu.

Kurukshetra:  The battlefield in the epic Mahabharata.

kutcha:  Unfinished, raw.

lagan:  Attachment.

lakh:  100,000.

Lalaji:  Shri Ram Chandra of Fatehgarh, the Adi-Guru of the Sahaj Marg system of Raja Yoga. The guru of Babuji.

laya:  Mergence, dissolution; hence, release or liberation.

layavastha (layaavastha) or laya avastha(a):  The state of complete mergence whereby two become One.

lila (leela):  Divine play.

lobha:  Enticement; temptation; greed.

Lord Krishna:  Most recent incarnation of Vishnu; divine personality in the epic Mahabharata.

Lord Narayana (Lord Naaraayana):  Another name for Vishnu.

Lord Rama or Lord Ram Chandra:  Husband of Sita in the Indian epic story Ramayana.

Mahabharata (Mahaabhaarata):  Great epic of Indian culture and world literature.

mahah:  One of the states of consciousness.

Mahakal (mahaakaala):  Great time; orginal time.

maha-kal-chakra (maha-kaal-chakra):  The Supreme’s wheel. (See footnote in Towards Infinity, discussion on Seventh Knot).

Mahakal Purusha (mahaakaala purusha):  The first of two body forms created from Brahman, the other being Prakriti.

mahamaya (mahaamaayaa):  The divine power of illusion which makes the world to appear as real.

maha nirvana:  Illumined state.

Maha Parishad (mahaa parishad):  The highest cosmic functionary; ruler of the universe.

mahapralaya (mahaapralaya):  State of complete dissolution when everything in existence merges with the Centre. The complete dissolution of the whole universe.

Maharaj:  Literally, ‘great king.’ Term used to express respect for an elevated soul.

maha samadhi (mahaa samaadhi):  The final samadhi when a saint renounces his body and enters the brighter world.

mahasoonya:  The great void of Nothingness.

mahat:  Literally meaning ‘great’. But in Sankhya and Yoga philosophy it means buddhi or intellect, which is the first product of the Prakriti.

mahatma (mahaatmaa):  Great soul, saint.

mahato mahiyan:  That which is greater than the greatest.

mahboobiat:  Object of love.

Mahesh:  Another name for the Hindu god Lord Shiva; literally "great god".

mala:  Impurity.

mamakaara:  Mine-ness.

mananam or manana:  Thinking over; contemplation.

manas:  Psyche, mind.

manasa lake (manasarovar):  Another name for the Brahmanda Mandal.

mandal(a):  Region.

mani padma:  The jewel in the Lotus.

manmat(a):  Disciple who approaches a guru for worldly, material goals.

manomaya kosha:  Mind sheath.

mantra or mantram:  A sound repeated over and over again, particularly a sacred sound, word, or phrase.

Manu:  In Hindu tradition, a title given to the progenitor of humanity.

manushya:  Sanskrit for ‘human being’.

marg (maarg) or marga (maarga):  Way or path.

math (mutt, matha):  Spiritual organization.

Matsya:  Fish. The first avatar of Vishnu.

Maulana Rumi:  A famous Sufi saint who lived in the 13th century A.D.

maya (maayaa):  Phenomenal appearance. It is really a power of God. All manifestation or expansion that seems illusory is the play of maya. Illusion.

mayavi rachana (mayavee rachana):  The structure of maya, or the universe of attributes.

milap (milaap):  Union.

mimamsa (meemaamsaa):  Reasoning or analysis. It stands for the school of philosophy which recognises Vedas as authoritative texts.

Mirabai:  A 16th century saint, mystic and poet devoted to Lord Krishna

moha:  Undue attachment.

moksha:  Liberation or Salvation. But in Sahaj Marg, both are not the same. "Freedom from bondage is Liberation. It is different from Salvation which is not the end of the process of rebirth." (Reality at Dawn.)

mudha (moodha):  Condition of the mind, including the tendencies that cause laziness, indolence and idleness.

moodha bhakti:  Sanskrit for ‘blind faith’ or ‘blind obedience’.

Moulvi RoomiSee Jalaluddin Rumi.

mouna:  Silence.

mudra:  Yogic "seal" or secret practice. Also refers to certain postures and hand gestures.

muhurtam:  Auspicious moment.

mukti:  Liberation.

muladhara chakra (moolaadhaara chakra):  Basic plexus or chakra.

mumukshu:  A seeker of the spiritual Truth; one desirous of emancipation.

mumukshutva:  The last of the four sadhanas (Sadhana Chatushtaya).

muni:  Saint; seer; one who has realised Self.

nabhi (naabhi):  Navel.

nabhi chakra (naabhi chakra):  The navel plexus.

nadi (naadhi):  Commonly refers to the pulse beat; subtle channels; any physical tubular organs in the body

namaste (namaskaram):  A greeting meaning ‘salutations to you’.

Narada (Naarada):  A celestial sage; devotee of Lord Vishnu.

naraka:  Hell. A place where souls are sent to expiate their sins.

Narasimha: Avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, often portrayed as half man half lion.

Narayana (Naaraayana):  See Lord Narayana.

Neti Neti:  Not this, not this.

nididhyasanam (nididhyaasanam):  Meditation.

nindak:  One who finds faults with another person.

nirakar (niraakaar):  Formless.

nirguna:  Without attributes or qualities.

Nirguna Brahman:  Indeterminate Absolute.

nirmanakaya:  A created body.

nirodha or niruddha:  State in which all the tendencies or modifications of the mind are restrained.

Nirvana (nirvaana):  Illuminated state. Liberation.

nirvikalpa sama(a)dhi:  Samadhi in which we are not conscious; ecstasy with the loss of the world-consciousness; consciousness of abstract.

nishkama (nishkaama):  Desireless.

nishkam karma (nishkaama karma):  Work without attachment to the result; desireless action.

nishkama upasana (nishkaama upaasanaa):  Desireless devotion.

nivritti:  Retrogression; destructive return or withdrawal.

niyama or niyam:  Subjected laws which must be followed. They are purity, contentment, austerity, self study, self abandonment (devotion to God).

niyantru:  One who controls time, space and matter, and keeps them in order.

Noah:  Biblical prophet who built an ark and saved life during the great flood.

Nur-Jahan:  Born as Mehr-un-Nissa in 1577, was a Mughal Empress, the chief consort of Emperor Jahangir.

nyasa:  Something entrusted to another, put in trust.

ojas:  Splendour; lustre; vital energy.

omkar or om:  The sacred syllable "Aum".

Om shanti or Om santih: Invocation of peace.

paddhati:  A system or tradition. Way of practice.

padmasana (padmaasana):  Lotus position in hatha yoga.

panch agni:  The five fires, or powers, of the five points of the pind pradesh (see footnote in Towards Infinity, discussion on Fifth Knot).

panch agni vidya:  Wisdom of the Five Fires. See panch agni.

pancha bhutas (bhootas):  The five elements or principles in Hindu cosmology: earth, water, fire, air, and space.

panchamakaara:  The left-hand path, also called Vaamchaara — an esoteric and occult practice of Tantrik schools. They use Matsya (fish), Mamsa (meat), Madhya (alcohol), Mudra (position of fingers during religious worship), Maithuna (copulation) — all beginning with "M" or "Ma," and since there are five of them it is called the Pancha-makaara, or "Five Ma's."

pancheekaran (pancheekaranam):  The theory which explains that the world is made of five elements, where one particular element is 50 percent and the other four are divided equally in the rest. For example, the earth element is 50 percent earth and a combination of the other four elements is divided equally to make up the other 50 percent.

pandal:  Tent.

pandit:  Learned person, well versed in any subject.

Parabrahma loka:  The region of supreme Brahman or God.

Para Brahman:  Indeterminate Absolute; God as the Ultimate Cause of Existence.

para brahmanda:  Supra-cosmic consciousness.

para brahmanda mandal (para brahmaanda mandal): Supra-cosmic region of the mind.

paramanus (paramaanus):  First Mind; Supreme Mind; fine particles.

paramartha (paramaartha):  The Supreme or most sublime Truth. The true spiritual knowledge.

Paramdham (Paramdhaam):  Supreme abode.

Parameshwar:  Supreme creator.

parampara (paramparaa):  Lineage.

Parashurama (Parashuraama):  The sixth incarnation of Lord Vishnu.

parasparam:  Mutual.

parayana (paaraayana):  A recitation of scriptures.

Parishad:  Cosmic functionary below the Maha Parishad who directs the work of the Dhruvadhipatis.

parivrajaka (parivraajaka):  A travelling mendicant.

parlok (paraloka):  The next world; the higher world.

parmatma (paramaatma):  The higher or Supreme Soul; God.

Parvati (Paarvati):  The consort of Shiva.

pasus:  Generally refers to all living things; specifically, to animals; most specifically, to cows.

patala (paataala):  The Hindu netherworld, or underworld.

Patanjali:  Ancient Indian scholar who wrote the Yoga Sutras (aphorisms), the foundational text of Ashtanga Yoga.

pind or pinda:  Material or gross existence, that which exists in the gross or material state.

pind pradesh (pinda pradesha) or pind desh (pinda desha):  Material sphere, the heart region.

pitru bha(a)va:  Paternal feeling.

Pitruloka:  World of ancestors. Hindu realm between heaven and earth where one’s ancestors reside.

poorak (puraka or pooraka):  Inhalation.

prabhu:  Master; God. Also the condition of Master or God; the experience of being the Master.

Prabhu-prapanna:  Spiritual condition experienced as being both the Master and one who has surrendered.

pradeshas:  Conditions, states.

pradhan (pradhaana):  Another word for prakriti. Literally it means ‘first’; the first cause for the creation of the universe.

Prahlada (Prahlaada):  A boy in the Puranas whose faith in Vishnu allows him to survive various attempts on his life by his jealous father.

prajna (prajnaa):  Divine wisdom; consciousness

prakriti:  Primordial or first cause of creation and hence is also termed as pradhaana; this consists of three gunas: sattva, rajas and tamas. Loosely translated as Nature.

pralaya:  State of dissolution, applied not to the whole universe but only to a part of it.

pramana:  Authority, or valid means of knowledge.

prana (praana):  Life, breath.

pranahuti (praanaahuti):  Process of yogic transmission; derived from prana meaning life and ahuti meaning offering. Offering of the life force by the guru into the disciple’s heart.

pranam:  Respectful salutation; obeisance.

pranamaya kosha:  Breath sheath.

prana pratishtha (praana pratishthaa):  Power to infuse a spiritual force into a picture or idol.

pranasya prana (praanasya praana):  Literally ‘the life of life’.

pranava:  The syllable "Aum."

pranava japa:  Chanting the "Aum," or pranava.

pranayama(a) or pranayam:  Derived from prana (life, vital force) and from ayama (to restrain).  The regulation of prana. Hatha Yoga breathing technique. Fourth step in Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga.

prapanna:  A spiritual stage; also, one who has surrendered.

prapanna-prabhu:  Spiritual condition experienced as being both the Master and one who has surrendered.

prapti-virodhis:  Enemies of our attainment.

prarabdha:  Fate, destiny.

prasad or prasadam (prasaad or prasaadam) :  Divinized food, usually sweet; an offering to Master or God.

prasthana trayee (prasthaana trayee):  The three fundamental orthodox scriptural books of the Hindus; viz., the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras.

pratibha (pratibhaa):  Appearance.

pratyahara or pratyahar:  The inner withdrawal of the mind (fifth branch of Patanjali's Yoga).

pratyaksa:  Present before one's vision or eyes.

pravritti:  Progress (constructive); upward growth.

preceptor or prefect:  An abhyasi chosen, prepared, and permitted by the Master to impart spiritual training through the utilization of pranahuti or yogic transmission.

prithvi or prithivi or prithvee or prithivee:  The earth; earth element or principle.

pucca:  Ripe, complete.

puja (poojaa):  Religious traditional practice; in Sahaj Marg, the meditation practice.

pujya (poojya):  Revered, respected; used as an honorific at the beginning of a great man's name.

punarjanma:  Rebirth.

pundits:  Scholars.

punya:  Righteous or meritorious action.

Puranas (Puraanas):  Epics. There are eighteen major Puranas and several minor ones. Generally ancient stories about Hindu saints and deities, but they contain a lot of useful information on many branches of science and the arts.

purusha:  Man; the Self in Yoga and Sankyha philosophy; also, Consciousness and Universal principle.

purushartha (purushaartha):  The goal of the human effort — applied at the same time to the purely human goals or the supra-human goals.

purva karma:  Past actions, and their effect.

purva mimamsa (poorva meemaamsaa):  Search for the first knowledge. Also the name of one of the six orthodox schools of philosophy of India, which gives more importance to only the first portion or Karmakanda section of the Vedas, where performance of rituals and sacrifices are stressed.

pushpak viman (pushpaka vimaana):   A flying machine referred to in the Ramayana.

putramoha:  Attachment to one’s child.

Radha (Raadhaa):  One of the gopis, a lover of Lord Krishna and his beloved.

RahuganaSee Jada Bharata.

raja (raajaa):  King.

Raja Bhoja:  Ruler of the Malwa region of India from the beginning of the eleventh century to about 1055. Under his rule, Malwa and its capital Dhara became one of the chief intellectual centres of India. He was a versatile scholar having written numerous book, including on yoga.

Raja Dasharatha (Raajaa Dasharatha) Or Raja Dasharat:  (Surya dynasty) Father of Rama.

Raja Janak:  Father of Sita; a great king known for his spiritual wisdom.

Rajas:  One of the three gunas. Leads to activity, egoism and selfishness.

Raja Yoga (raaja yoga):  Ancient system or science followed by the great rishis and saints which helped them to realise the Self or God. Usually used for meditative practices, as distinguished from Hatha Yoga.

rakshasas (raakshasas):  Demons.

Rama (Raama):  See Lord Rama.

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Raamakrishna Paramahamsa):  Saint who lived in Calcutta at the end of the nineteenth century and who was Swami Vivekananda's Master.

Ramanuja or Ramanujacharya:  One of the three acharyas; founder of the Vishishta-advaita system of Vedanta philosophy.

Ramayan/a (Raamaayan/a):  One of the epic stories of India.

Ram Nam (Rama Nama):  The name of Lord Rama, usually used as a mantra.

Ram Rajya:  Rule of Ram. Mahatma Gandhi often used this term to define an ideal form of democratic rule in which all citizens could be sure of justice.

rasa:  Taste.

Ravana (Raavana):  A Raakshasa (demon) king who ruled Lanka in the era of Ramayana. He is supposed to have had a great knowledge of the Vedas and have possessed enormous powers.

Rechak (rechaka):  Exhalation.

representative:  In Sahaj Marg, a term reserved for that person who is nominated by a Master as successor; the currently incarnated Master and president of Shri Ram Chandra Mission.

richa:  Cosmic recording of all thoughts and events.

Rig Veda:  One of the Vedas. The others are Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Artharvana Veda. It is considered by many to be the most ancient text in the world.

rishi:  Seer; saint.

Rishi Agastya:  Celebrated saint of ancient India.

Rishi Durvasa (Rishi Durvaasa):  An ancient saint noted for his sharp temper.

rudra:  A person possessing the power of rudra-shakti. Also one who makes others weep for their wrongs.

rudra-shakti:  Destructive power; power possessed by a rudra of whom Shiva is the personification. The power of making others weep for their wrongs.

rupa (roopa):  Form.

Sabal Brahman:  Potent Brahman.

sabda pramanya (shabda praamaanya):  Verbal testimony. Authority of Vedas, or the words of a trusted person.

sadguru:  Guru capable of giving the knowledge of Truth.

sadhak (saadhaka):  One who practises a spiritual path.

sadhana (saadhana):  Spiritual practice.

Sadhana Chatushtaya (saadhana chatushtaya):  The four-fold spiritual practice: viveka or discrimination; vairagya or detachment; sampatti, meaning spiritual attainments, consisting of six limbs; and mumukshutva, to seek liberation.

sadhu (saadhu):  Religious or saintly person.

saguna:  With gunas or characteristics, qualities, and attributes.

Saguna Brahman:  Determinate Absolute.

Saguna Ishwara:  Determinate Absolute; having the quality of Ishwara.

sahaj (sahaja):  Natural; simple.

sahaj avastha:  Natural state or condition.

Sahaj Marg:  Literally: natural path, simple path.

sahaj samadhi (sahaja samaadhi):  Natural samadhi, considered the highest samadhi: simultaneity of total external awareness with total inner emptiness or absorption.

sahasra dal kamal (sahasra dala kamala):  Lotus of a thousand petals, located in the frontal lobe of the brain.

sahavasa (sahavaasa):  Association.

Sahib (saahib):  A respectful form of address to a man.

Saint Kabir:  The great poet and sage claimed by both Hindus and Muslims who lived in Benares, in the 14th century A.D.

sakara (saakaara):  Tangible form.

Sakha:  Friend.

sakhaya:  Friendship.

sakhis:  Poetry stanzas.

sakti divine:  Highest energy.

sakhya bha(a)va:  Friendly feeling.

saloya:  In the same world as another.

samaan:  Similar.

samadhana (samaadhaana):  6th sampatti. State of self-settledness to the Master’s will.

samadhi (samaadhi):  Original balance. State in which we stay attached to Reality. In Sahaj Marg, the return to the original condition, which reigned in the beginning. The eighth limb of Patanjali’s yoga.

Samarth Guru (Samartha Guru):  A perfect guru, who possesses all the saintly qualities.  A perfectly balanced guru.

samastha:  An organisation.

samatva:  Balance or evenness of mind.

samavastha (samavasthaa):  A balanced state.

samipya:  Nearness.

sampattis:  The third step among the four in the non-dualistic school of Vedanta, consisting of six limbs. This word literally means wealth or state of being or condition.

samskaras (samskaaraas):  Impressions; grossness.

sandhi gati:  Merging of two states.

sandhya:  Meeting point between day and night.

Sandhyavandana (Sandhyaavandana):  Daily ritual which has to be performed by the ‘twice-born’ in the Hindu religion.

sang-e-benamak:  A lump of salt from which saltiness has been taken away.

sankalp (sankalpa):  An act of will; subtle suggestion backed by will.

Sankhya (Saankhya):  One of the six orthodox schools of philosophy in India. It is allied with Yoga philosophy.

sankirtanists:  Those who do sankirtan.

sankirtans:  Congregational chants.

sannyasa (sannyaasa):  The path of renunciation.

sannyasi/n (sannyaasi/n):  One who has renounced the world and leads a solitary life of celibacy and asceticism.

Sanskrit:  Culture; also name of the ancient language of India.

sanstha (sansthaa):  Spiritual tradition; organisation; group.

Sant Mat:  Path of the saints.

sapta-bhumikas (sapta-bhoomikas):  Seven stages.

sarai (saraai)See choultry.

sarangi (saarangi):  Indian stringed musical instrument.

Saraswati:  The goddess of learning.

sarupya:  Similarity; become one with; having similar form and appearance.

sarupyata (saaroopyata):  Identicality of form. State in which we acquire the same form.

sarvam khalvidam Brahman:  All is truly Brahman.

sarvamukti:  Simultaneous universal emancipation.

Sat:  Truth, Reality, Existence; the Ultimate Principle or Infinity. See also Sat (satva).

Sat (satva):  One of the three gunas, standing for peace, calmness, nobility.

Satchidananda (satchidanaanda):  Existence-consciousness-bliss.

Sat-Guru:  A guru who dwells in Reality and can impart spiritual training by transmitting Divine grace.

Sathayam:  The name of a star in Hindu astrology.

satpad or satyapad:  In Sahaj Marg, the sphere where truth is predominant; a region of light though in a very fine state.

satsang (satsangh):  Spiritual assembly; being with reality.

satsangi:  One who attends satsang.

sattva:  One of the three gunas. Leads to balance or poise. It manifests in virtuous conduct and brings about happiness.

sattvik (saattvik):  Pertaining to or that which promotes sattva in the body.

Satyaloka:  One of the higher regions; region of truth.

satyam:  One of the states of consciousness. Also means truth.

satyam vada:  Speak the truth.

satyodayam:  The dawn of reality.

Satyuga (satya yuga):  The age, or era, of truth.

sayodayam: The dawn of reality.

sayujyata:  Close conformity; something identical; become one with.

Sesha:  Literally means ‘what remains’. Also stands for Adisesha, the great serpent on which Lord Vishnu is depicted reclining.

shaapa:  Harmful or harsh word. Curse.

shabda or ajapa:  Sound, inner vibration within, as opposed to japa.

shabdamahatmya (shabdamahaatmya):  The greatness of sound.

Shahjahanpur (Shaahjahaanpur):  City in Uttar Pradesh; birthplace and lifelong home of Babuji.

shakti:  Power.

shama:  Peaceful condition of the mind leading to a state of calmness and tranquility; the first of the shat (six) sampattis.

shankar:  Shiva, one of the Trinity in Hinduism, the others being Brahma and Vishnu.

Shankaracharya (Shankarachaarya):  Ancient saint of India, who propounded the school of Advaita philosophy. He is supposed to have lived in the 8th century AD.

shanti:  Peace; tranquillity.

sharir (shareera):  Body.

sharirikata (shareerikataa):  Body consciousness.

shastras (shaastras):  Holy books (scriptures).

shastric:  Of, or pertaining to, the shastras.

shasvatam (shaasvatam):  Permanent; that which is eternal.

shat:  Six.

shat-sampatti:  Six forms of spiritual attainments in the third Vedantic Sadhana, consisting of six forms of spiritual attainments: shama, dama, uparati, titiksha (titikshaa), shraddha (shraddhaa), samadhana (samaadhaana).

shatchakras:  The six chakras or plexuses, symbolically denoted as lotuses, situated in the subtle body. They are:
1. Muladhara, or root chakra, at the perineum
2. Svadhidhtana, at the genitals
3. Manipuraka, navel
4. Anahata, heart
5. Vishudha, throat
6. Ajna, center of the eyebrows

shikar or sikhar:  Crown, top, summit.

shithali:  One which endows with coolness.

Shiva:  One of the Trinity in Hinduism, the others being Brahma and Vishnu.

shraddha (shraddhaa):  Faith; devotion with faith. The fifth sampatti.

shradh (shraaddha):  A Hindu ceremony performed after the death of a loved one in which food offerings are made to the departed soul.

shramdan:  An offering of physical labor.

Shri:  A title of respect before a man’s name.

Shri Aurobindo:  See Aurobindo.

Shri Krishna:  See Lord Krishna.

shruti or sruti:  Revealed knowledge through vibrations. Also the Vedas, or revealed scripture.

shunya (shoonya):  Void; nothing; zero.

shunyabhava (shoonyabhaava):  Litterally "the condition of nothingness"; the condition of peace; the higher state of spiritual bliss.

siddhanta (siddhaanta):  School of thought or point of view.

siddhis:  Capacity to do miracles; powers.

siddhopaya:  Readily accessible. Also, ready means.

sikhar:  Crown, top.

simooms:  Strong, dry, dusty, desert winds in the Sahara and Arabia.

sitting:  A session of meditation, usually lasting from 30 minutes to an hour, in which the Master or a preceptor meditates with a group or an individual for the purpose of cleaning and transmission.

sloka:  A verse.

smriti:  A remembered law or code of conduct.

sparsha:  Touch.

sravana or sravanam:  Listening.

srishti:  Era of Creation in the Indian calendar.

srut:  Attention, steadiness, withdrawal, peace, stability.

sthitaprajna:  One who is established in the Self. Alternatively, one whose consciousness in merged in the Self.

sthula deha (sthoola deha): Gross body. See also sthula sharir.

sthula sharir (sthoola shareer):  Gross body.

stotra:  Hymn or prayer addressed to divinity.

Sudarshan Chakra:  Divine weapon of Lord Krishna used in the Mahabharata, a finger-wheel; see Krishna Chakra.

Suddha Brahman or Shuddha Brahman (shuddha Brahman):  Pure Brahman.

suddha sattva body:  Pure body.

sudras or shudras (shoodras):  The fourth and lowest Hindu caste.

Sufi:  An Islamic mystic.

sukshma (sookshma):  Subtle.

sukshma deha (sookshma deha):  Subtle body. See also sukshma sharir.

sukshma sharir (sookshma shareer):  Astral body, subtle body.

supatra (supaatra):  Well-deserving person.

surat:  Divine law; divine principle; divine secret.

Surdas:   A 15th-century blind saint known for his devotional songs dedicated to Lord Krishna.

surya:  The sun.

suryavamsh/a:  Surya/Solar dynasty.

sushupti:  One of the four states of consciousness. It is described as the consciousness of deep sleep in which a man does not dream. When this state of mind is attained, a man gets in close communion with God, though he remains in a forgetful state.

sutras (sootras):   Short sayings or aphorisms.

sutratma (sootraatmaa):  Literally means: "sootra" thread and "aatmaa" Self. So perhaps this means "the supporting Self".

svabhava (svabhaava):  One’s own nature or attributes.

svar:  One of the states of consciousness.

svadisthana chakra:  The chakra located at the level of the genital organs.

svadhyaya:  Study of holy scriptures combined with practice.

svapna:  Dream.

swadisthana chakra (svaadhisthaana chakra):  The chakra located at the level of the genital organs.

swami (swaami) or swamiji (swaameeji):  Hindu priest. Saint.

Swami Ram Tirtha (Swaami Raam Teertha):  An Indian teacher of Vedanta who lived in the late 19th and early 20th century and lectured abroad.

Swami Vivekananda (Swaami Vivekaananda):  A great saint of India who lived in the late 19th and early 20th century, and was a disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahansa.

swapna avastha (svapna avasthaa):  Dream state.

tadakar (tadaakaara):  Similarity.

tadrupa jnan (tadroopa jnaana):  The knowledge of the real form, which is supreme bliss.

Taijas (taijasa):  Brilliance; pertaining to light.

tam:  The actual state we were in when the world was born. Real state of being.

tamas:  One of the three gunas. Inertness. It leads to inactivity, sloth or procrastination.

tanmatras (tanmaatras):  Subtle elements.

Tantra Drishtaa:  The seer of the current, of the movement of nature or vitality, and one who spreads this current.

Tantric (tantric):  Relating to Hindu and Buddhist scriptures dealing especially with techniques and rituals, including meditative and sexual practices.

tanum swam vivernute:  "Reveals its own form."

tapah:  One of the states of consciousness.

tapas or tapasya (tapasyaa):  Ascetic practices to purify the soul and attract Divine grace. Literally means "heat," and indicates the heat generated by the friction of intense spiritual practice.

tapasvi:  One who does penance, or ascetic practices (tapasya).

taraasu:  Tamil for ‘balance’.

tarka:  Reasoning.

tattvas:  Elements or principles in Hindu cosmology. See pancha bhutas.

thas:  Condition of total grossness.

Thiruvonam:  The name of a star (Sravana in Sanskrit). An auspicious day of the Onam festival celebrated in the Indian state of Kerala.

tilak:  Pigment mark on the forehead.

titiksha (titikshaa):  State of fortitude or forbearance. The 4th sampatti.

Treta Yuga:  The second of the four yugas in the Hindu religion. Lord Rama belonged to this period.

trigunatmak (trigunaatmaka):  Consisting of three gunas; belonging to the three gunas.

Trikuti:  The point above the nose between the two eyebrows; one of the points of concentration.

Tulsidas:  Sage who wrote the story of the Ramayana in Hindi, or Ram Charat Manas.

turiya (tureeya):  Fourth state; the other three being: jagrat— waking state; swapna— dream state; sushupti— deep sleep state.

turiya avastha:  Fourth state of the soul, when it becomes one with God.

turiyatita (tureeyaateeta):  Beyond the turiya condition, where the soul becomes one with God.

udasi:  Detachment; disinterest.

Udgeet (udgeeta):  ‘ud’ meaning higher, other worldly, original, collection of attributes (becoming) and ‘geet’ meaning song. Thus the word means ‘The song of the original and the manifestation’, ‘the song of Being and becoming’, ‘the song of heaven and earth’, or human voice.

upa:  Sanskrit prefix meaning ‘secondary’ or ‘near’.

upadan karana (upaadaana kaarana):  Cause which itself results in effect. Thus it may be explained as root cause. See kshobh.

upadesha:  Sermon. Instruction.

upadeshaka:  Instructor; advisor; preacher.

upanayanam:  Opening of the higher eye.

Upanishads:  Vedantic part of the Vedas (Jnaana Kanda).

Upanishadic:  Of, or pertaining to, the Upanishads.

uparashtrapati (uparaashtrapati):  Vice-president.

uparati:  Self-withdrawal. The 3rd sampatti.

upasana (upaasanaa):  Devotion; devotional practice.

upasana bheda (upaasanaa bheda):  The difference in spiritual practice.

utsav:  Religious or spiritual celebration.

uttara mimamsa (uttara meemaamsaa):  Search for subsequent knowledge. This is latter part of the Mimamsa in the Vedas. The Poorva Mimamsa pertains to the enquiry of the first or the Karmakanda section of the Vedas; the Uttara Mimamsa pertains to the study of Vedanta, which is latter part of the Vedas dealing with higher knowledge, i.e. knowledge of the Self or Brahman. So this is popularly known as Vedanta. See mimamsa.

uttarayana:  Six month's of the sun's northern path.

vachik jnan (vachika jnaana):  Knowledge of the word.

Vaikunth (Vaikuntha):  The abode of lord Vishnu.

vairagya (vairaagya):  Renunciation, detachment.

vaishyas or vyshyas:  The Hindu merchant caste.

Vanaprastha (vaanaprastha):  Forest dweller. The third stage of a man in Hindu life. The first is brahmacharya (celebate), student life; the second grihastha, family life; the fourth is sannyaasa, recluse or mendicant.

Varaha (Varaaha):  Boar. The third avatar of Vishnu.

varnatmak (varnaatmaka):  Syllabic, alphabetic.

vasanas (vaasanaas):  Past impressions.

Vashishta:  One of the seven great ancient rishis. The guru of Lord Rama in the epic Ramayana.

vasle haq:  Going back to the source.

Vasu:  Refers to the cosmic functionary below the Dhruva, an elevated person who performs the lowest level of godly work entrusted to him.

vayu (vaayu):  Air or air principle.

vayu nadi:  The air nadi.

Vedamantra:  The hymns of the Vedas.

Vedanta (Vedaanta):  Literally the last portion of the Vedas or inner knowledge; one of the six orthodox schools of Indian philosophy.

Vedantic:  Of, or pertaining to, the Vedanta.

vedantists or vedantins (vedaantins):  Those who follow the school of Vedanta.

Vedas:  Knowledge. Ancient Indian scriptures, in which a superior knowledge is revealed.

Vedic:  Of, or pertaining to, the Vedas.

veena (veenaa):  An Indian stringed musical instrument; lute.

viaticals:  Baggage taken on a journey; things that impede progress.

vidya (vidyaa):  Knowledge; science.

vihara (vihaara):  Buddhist monastery.

vijnana (vijnaana):  Knowledge, meditation and higher knowledge, or science.

vijnanamaya kosha (vijnaanamaya kosha):  Knowledge sheath.

vikaras:  Impediments. Change of form or nature, deviation from natural state, modification.

vikhota vairagya:  False asceticism.

Vikramaditya:  Legendary 1st century emperor of India.

vikshepa:  Distraction; confusion.

vikshipta:  The tendency which drives the mind away from sacred thoughts and brings about the haunting of numerous irrelevant ideas at the time of meditation.

vikrakta:  Recluse.

virat (viraat):  Cosmic. See brahmanda mandal.

virat astitva (viraat astitva):  Greater existence.

virat desh:  See brahmanda mandal.

virat purusha (viraat purusha):  That which resides in the brahmanda mandal.

virat roop (viraat roop):  Cosmic form.

viryam:  Virility; strength.

visesa:  Specific object or quality.

Vishishtadvaita (Vishishtaadvaita):  One of the sub-schools of the Vedanta.

Vishnu:  The preserver; one of the Hindu Trinity, the others being Brahma and Shiva.

vishuddhi chakra:  One of the six chakras or plexuses, situated at the base of the throat.

vishva:  World; universe.

vishvarupa darshana:  Vision of the Lord's Cosmic form.

Vishwamitra (Vishwaamitra):  An ancient king who later became a great saint; the teacher of Lord Rama in the epic Ramayana.

viveka:  Discernment; discrimination.

viveka shakti:  Power of discrimination.

vivekachudamani:  A text written by Adi Shankaracharya.

Vivekananda (Vivekaananda):  See Swami Vivekananda.

vrittis:  Outward flow of mind; subtle desires or stimuli coming up in the mind causing action; mental tendencies.

vyavahara (vyavahaara):  Connection between people; behavior.

yajnas (yajnaas):  Religious rituals, sacrifices.

yaksha:  A class of semi-divine beings; a living supernatural being.

yaksha prasna:  Series of questions asked by a yaksha to Dharma Putra in the Mahabharata.

yama:  1. Self interdiction. Vow of abstinence of violence, falsity, robbery, unchastity, and tendency to acquire. 2. Lord of Death.

yantra:  Literally it means a machine or instrument; in religious terms it means some mystical drawings.

yathartha jnan (yathaartha jnaana):  The knowledge of a thing as it is. Right or valid knowledge.

yatra (yaatraa):  Voyage; journey; pilgrimage; the inner spiritual process.

yoga:  A system of Hindu philosophy showing means of emancipation of the soul from further migration, mainly subdivided as Raja Yoga and Hatha Yoga.

yogaja (yogajaa):  Intuitive perception of all objects. One who is born from the yoga practice.

yoganidra (yoganidraa):  A yogi’s spiritual state during which they seem to be asleep but inside they are awake.

yogi or yogin:  One who practices yoga; one who achieves union with the Absolute.

yogic:  Of, or pertaining to yoga.

yoni:  Source; origin; also womb.

yuga:  An eon of time measurable in thousands of years.

yuj or yuja or yujya: To join or unite; to yoke.