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Glossary

Glossary combined from various Sahaj Marg publications. Please note that alternative common spellings are given after some words, e.g.: aavarana or avaran, and the phonetic spelling of each Sanskrit word is put in parentheses after the word, e.g. jiva or jivatma (jivaatma).

aalayam:  Tamil word for a Hindu temple.

aavarana or avaran:  Layers of grossness; coverings.

abhyas or abhyasa (abhyaas):  Practice.

abhyasi (abhyaasi):  Aspirant; one who practices yoga in order to achieve union with God.

absentia or in absentia: In the absence of, or while absent.

achara (aachaara):  Practice.

acharya (aachaarya):  Religious teacher.

adi (aadi):  Original.

Adi Guru (Aadi Guru):  Original Guru; Lalaji, in Sahaj Marg.

Adi Shankara:  Eighth century Hindu philosopher who established the doctrine of advaita.

adi tattva (aadi tattva):  Original element.

aditya:  The Sun.

aditya hridayam:  A Sanskrit chant praising the sun; a prayer to the Sun God. (From the Ramayana.)

advaita or adwaita:  State of unity (non-duality).

agamic initiation:  Initiation according to the Agamas. The Agamas are a body of spiritual literature dealing with temple rituals, temple architecture, etc.

agni:  Fire, the fire element or principle.

agni naadi:  The fire naadi (current or channel).

agya chakra:  See ajna chakra.

Aham:  I.

Aham Brahmasmi (aham brahmaasmi):  I am Brahman/God.

ahankara or ahamkara (ahamkaara):  Ego.

ahamta:  Egoism.

ahankara (ahamkaara):  Ego.

ahimsa:  Non-violence.

aikya:  Oneness, unity.

aikya bhava:  Feeling of oneness.

ajapa (ajapaa):  Meditation without utterance of a mantra.

ajna chakra or agya chakra (aajnaa chakra):  The point located between the eyebrows. Trikuti.

akarma:  Non-action.

akarta:  Non-doer; one who does not do.

akash or akasha (aakaasha):  Space, sky. The space element or principle.

akasha naadi:  The space, or etheric, naadi.

Akbar: Sixteenth century Mughal emperor of India.

Akka (akkaa):  Respectful address to an older woman meaning “elder sister”.

aksi:  Reflected condition.

anaadi:  Without beginning.

anaahata or anahad:  The sound produced in the heart of its own accord; heart chakra.

anand or ananda or anandam (aananda or aanandam):  Bliss.

anandamaya kosha:  Sheath of bliss.

anant(a):  Infinity or endlessness.

Anant-Ki-Or:  Towards Infinity

anansuyatmaka buddhi:  Mind free of jealousy.

anar (anaar):  Firework.

anasuya:  One who has no jealousy.

anda:  Egg; Macrocosm.

angas:  Limbs, parts or aspects.

anoraniyan:  Smaller than the smallest.

annam:  Food.

annamaya kosha:  Physical sheath or food sheath (matter).

antaryamin (antaryaamin):  The God within; the In-Dweller.

anubhava:  Intuitional perception or personal experience in the realm of Nature or God.

anubhava shakti:  Intuitive Capacity, capacity acquired by experience.

anumana:  Hypothesis, hypothetical.

anushtanam:  Performance of daily rituals.

ap:  Water or water principle.

Apara Brahman:  Determinate Absolute (see Saguna Brahman).

aparigraha:  Non-covetousness.

appa:  Father; affectionate term, like papa. Equivalent to the Hebrew Abba.

arhat:  One of the qualifications of Gautama the Buddha. One who is fit; one who deserves.

Arjuna:  Lord Krishna’s devotee, and one of the Pandavas, to whom Lord Krishna gave the Gita in the epic Mahabharata.

asan or aasana:  Posture.

asabda:  Soundless, non-verbal.

ashanti (ashaanti):  Disquiet; restless; having no peace.

Ashoka:  Third century B.C. emperor of India.

ashram or ashrama:  "Ashram" comes from the Sanskrit "Shreyas" which applies, in the spiritual sense, to the growth of benefits which are connected to the higher level. An ashram is also a kind of refuge, a place of retreat from today's life. Ashrams in Sahaj Marg are dedicated to meditation only, all other activities are normally not allowed in the ashram. An ashram is usually charged by the Master, who creates a special atmosphere of spirituality conducive to meditation.

Ashtanga Yoga (ashtaanga yoga):  Patanjali described yoga as having eight limbs: yama, niyama, asana (aasana), pranayama (praanaayaama), pratyahara (pratyaahaara), dharana (dhaaranaa), dhyana (dhyaana) and samadhi (samaadhi).

astheyam:  Non-stealing.

astral form:  See sookshma sharir.

asuya:  Jealousy.

atma or atman (aatman):  Soul.

atma chakra:  Heart chakra. In Sahaj Marg, the second, or soul point.

atmanand:  Bliss of soul.

atma tatva (aatma tattva):  The essence of the soul.

Atri Rishi:  Ancient saint of Vedic lore.

Aurobindo:  An Indian spiritual teacher who lived in the first half of the 20th century.

avadhuta or avadhoota:  A state of mad ecstasy; a person in this state, generally revered as an elevated soul, but really a person with spiritual aspirations who has become ‘fixed’ at a certain level because their development has been arrested.

avakasha (avakaasha):  Time.

avarana or avaran:  Layers of grossness; coverings.

avastha (avasthaa):  Condition; state.

avatar (avataara):  Incarnation of a Divine soul.

avidya (avidyaa):  Ignorance.

Avittam:  The name of a star, Dhanishtha in Sanskrit. On the day of this star in the Indian calendar, in the month of August or September, the Brahmins remove the old sacred thread and wear a new one.

avyakta gati:  Undifferentiated state. State where one is completely liberated from maya (maayaa) limitations.

Ayodhya:  Birthplace of Lord Rama.

Babar or Babur:  Sixteenth century founder of the Mughal empire in India.

Basant Panchami or Vasanta Panchami:  Fifth day of spring in the lunar calendar. It was also Lalaji's birthday.

bhaava:  Attitude of mind.

Bhagavad Gita:  See Gita.

bhajan:  Songs sung or chanted in praise of God.

bhakta:  Devotee.

Bhakta Surdas:  A 15th century blind saint devoted to Lord Krishna.

bhakti:  Devotion.

bhamuk:  Illusion.

bhandara:  A spiritual gathering or celebration.

Bhaarata:  Another name for India.

Bharata:  Lord Rama's brother.

bhavas (bhaavas):  Expression of an inner condition; attitudes of the mind.

bhavsagar (bhava-saagara):  The ocean of life or existence; the present life.

Bheeshma Pitamaha or Bhishma Pitamaha (Bhishma Pitaamaaha):  The grand uncle of the Pandavas and Kauravas in the Mahabharata. He endured a very long life.

bhikku:  A male Buddhist monastic priest.

Bhima (Bheema):  One of the five Pandava brothers in the epic Mahabharata, known for his great strength.

bhoga or bhogam or bhog (bhogaa):  The process of undergoing the effects of impressions; experience; enjoyment.

bhrumadhya:  Between the eyebrows.

bhuh:  One of the states of consciousness.

Bhuma (bhoomaa):  Absolute; Ultimate; Base.

bhumika (bhoomika):  Stage in spiritual evolution.

Bhumi puja (Bhoomi poojaa):  Land dedication ceremony, where prayers are offered to Mother Earth and the spirit of the land.

bhuvah:  One of the states of consciousness.

bismil:  Auspicious beginning.

bodh:  Wisdom.

Brahma (Brahmaa):  One of the Trinity of gods in Hinduism: Shiva, Vishnu and Brahma.

brahmacharya:  Student phase of life; celibacy; literally "dwelling in Brahm".

brahmachari (brahmachaari):  One who follows brahmacharya.

brahma-gandha:  Divine smell.

brahmagati:  Divine state, state of Brahman.

Brahma-kama:  Love of God; desire for God.

Brahma-loka:  World of the Divine.

Brahman or Brahman:  Centre; God; Ultimate.

brahmanda (brahmaanda):  Astral world; cosmos.

brahmanda mandal (brahmaanda mandal) or brahmanda desh:  Mental sphere, supra-material sphere, cosmic region; sphere where everything manifests under a subtle shape before taking place in the material world.

brahmandi sur:  Cosmic sounds, celestial vibrations.

brahmarandhra:  A point or opening in the crown of the head.

Brahma-rasa:  Divine pleasure, enjoyment, or taste.

Brahma-sabda:  Divine sound.

Brahma-sparsa:  Divine touch.

Brahmin:  The traditional Hindu caste of priests and teachers; someone born into this caste.

brahmopadesha:  Initiation; teaching of higher knowledge about Brahman.

bhruvormadhya:  Point between the eyebrows, used in certain Yogic systems as a point for concentration.

Buddham saranam gacchami:  "I seek refuge in the Buddha."

buddhi:  Intellect.

cakra:  See chakra.

chaitanyata (chaitanyataa):  Consciousness, including a subtle activity.

chakra:  Center of super-vital forces located in different parts of the body, figuratively called lotus.

chela:  Student or disciple.

chit or chitta:  Consciousness.

chit lake:  Another name for brahmanda mandal.

choultry:  A free rest house for pilgrims or travellers.

cleaning:  Specific meditation technique prescribed to be practiced at the end of each day by a Sahaj Marg abhyasi, wherein the will power is used to remove subtle distortions (vikshep), coverings (avarana) and impurities (mala) that impede spiritual development.

crore:  10,000,000.

daana:  Charity.

dakshina (dakshinaa):  South; also offering by disciple to Guru for training received.

dakshinayana:  The six months of the sun's southern path.

dama:  2nd Sampatti; control of the senses and indriyas.

darshan(a):  Vision of someone’s inner Reality; seeing.

Dasharatha:  Father of Lord Rama; great king of the solar dynasty.

Dashavatara (Dashaavataara):  The ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu.

deva vani (deva vaani):  Divine voice.

devata (devataa):  A god; cosmic personality.

Devi:  Goddess.

devi upsaka:  A devi (Mother-Goddess) worshipper. Tantrik worship.

dhaam:  Body, or abode.

dharana or dharna:  Mental focus (sixth limb of Patanjali's yoga).

dharma:  A term with many applications, depending on the context: duty; righteousness; destined way; truth; virtue; that which upholds.

dharmaja:  One born of righteousness. Also, first-born child.

dharmakaya:  The dharma body, body built of righteousness.

dharmam chara:  Perform dharma or righteous deeds; follow dharma.

dhoti:  A long cloth worn by men around the waist.

dhi:  An element of samadhi; sama, meaning balance, and adhi, meaning original or ancient. See samadhi.

Dhritarashtra (Dhritaraastra):  Father of the Kaurava brothers in the epic Mahabharata.

dhruvagati:  State of dhruva. See Dhruva.

Dhruva:  Highly evolved soul. First or lowest level of cosmic functionary. Below the Dhruvadhipati.

Dhruvadhipati (dhruvaadhipati):  Godly functionary of great calibre who directs the work of the Dhruvas. Below the Parishad.

dhyan (dhyaan):  Meditation; seventh limb of Patanjali's yoga.

diksha:  Initiation.

Dipaw(v)ali or Diwali:  Hindu religious festival celebrated in the autumn. Also called “festival of lights”.

durga chakra:  Durga plexus.

Durvasa:  See Rishi Durvasa.

Duryodhana:  Eldest of the Kaurava brothers in the epic Mahabharata.

dvaita or dwaita:  Duality.

dvandva:  Dualities; the pairs of opposites (e.g., good-bad, pleasure-pain).

Dwapara Yuga (Dwaapara Yuga):  The third of the four yugas in the Hindu religion. Lord Krishna belongs to this period.

dwividha or dvividha:  Dualism; two types, or two-fold.

ekaagra-vritti or ekagra vritti:  The tendency to fix our attention on one thing at a time.

fana:  A Persian term for a spiritual condition. Also, destroyed or sacrificed. See laya.

fanaiyat:  Mergence.

Farhad:  The lover in Farhad and Shirin, one of the most popular ancient love stories of the Middle East.

Fatehgarh:  Birthplace of Lalaji Maharaj. City in Uttar Pradesh about sixty kilometres from Shahjahanpur.

gaddi:  A mattress for sitting on the floor. In politics, the expression "to aspire for the gaddi" means to seek to be the leader of an organization.

Gandhari (Gaandhaari):  Mother of the Kaurava brothers in the epic Mahabharata.

Ganga (Gangaa):  The river Ganges; considered to have holy properties including the ability to wash away sins.

Gayathri:  One of the Vedic mantras. Also the name given to Chariji’s home in Chennai.

Gayathri upadesh:  Teaching of the Gayathri mantra.

ghairat:  Bashfulness; shame; feeling oneself to be at fault.

Gita  (Geetaa):  The Bhagavad Gita, or Song of God. Divine knowledge given to Arjuna by Lord Krishna in the epic Mahabharata.

Gopis:  Group of cow-herd girls famous for their unconditional love of Lord Krishna.

granthi:  Knot.

grihastha:  One who leads a worldly life; a householder.

grihastha ashram (grihastha aashrama):  Conditions of a household life.

gunas:  The three qualities of Nature in Indian schools of philosophy: Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.

guru:  Master, who transmits light, knowledge; a spiritual teacher.

guru dakshina:  Offering to the guru by the disciple for training received, generally at the end of the training.

gurumat(a):  Disciples who obey the commands of the Master in all matters and try to submit to his will in all possible ways.

Guru Nanak:  The founder of the Sikh religion and the first of the Sikh gurus. He lived in the 15th and 16th centuries.

guru pashu:  People who become devoted to the Master's physical form.

Guru Purnima (Guru Poornimaa):  Auspicious day to be in the physical presence of your guru. The full moon day of the Hindu calendar month of Ashad, in July or August.

guru sthan:  The place where the guru sits during satsangh.

gyan (gyaana):   See jnana.

gyaani or gyani (jnaani):  Gnostic.

hallate fana:  The condition of mergence.

halwa:  A rich sweet dessert.

Hand aufs herz:  An oath for truth, meaning “hand on the heart.”

Hanuman (Hanumaan):  Lord Rama’s faithful servant in the epic Ramayana.

harijan:  Children of God; fifth caste.

Hatha Yoga:  The first five stages of Patanjali’s yoga. The practice of yoga concerning the body.

havan:  Offering of an oblation with fire. Also called Homa.

Hindi:  Language of North India, but commonly spoken throughout most of the country.

Hiranyagarbha:  Considered to be a name of Brahma, and the soul of the universe. Literally means ‘golden womb’ or ‘golden egg’ or ‘golden foetus’ – the source of the creation of the universe, mentioned in the Rig Veda.

homeopathic dose:  A very small quantity of something, as used in the dosages of homeopathic medicines.

Holi:  Ancient Hindu festival of colours. In Complete Works of Ram Chandra Volume 3, the real significance of Holi is given by Lalaji to Babuji on 18 March 1946.

hridaya chakra:  Heart plexus.

hylem shadow:  Spiritual shadow located on the right side of the sternum.

illat, killat, zillat:  A phrase meaning that to thrive spiritually a person should have a little less than good health, a little less money than they need, and constant criticism.

indriyas:  Ten senses / organs of Indian philosophy, subdivided as jnana and karma indriyas. The former are five senses pertaining to perception, knowledge or wisdom, while the latter are five senses pertaining mainly to action.

invertendo:  Term coined by Babuji to describe the apparent inversions Truth undergoes as it moves through higher levels of abstraction.

Isha:  God, as Ruler.

Ishwar (Eeshwar):  Determinate Absolute. God as Existence endowed with all the most subtle attributes. See also Saguna Brahman.

ishwari mandal (eeshwari mandal):  Determinate Absolute’s region.

jada samadhi (jada samaadhi):  Lower level of samadhi; the condition of absorption where a person is like an inert object.

jagat guru:  World teacher.

jala:  Water; the water element or principle.

jal-dan:  Prayerful offering of water.

janah:  One of the states of consciousness.

janma:  Birth.

japa:  Repetition of a mantra.

jayanthi:  Birth anniversary.

jiva or jivatma (jivaatma):  Individual incarnated soul. Life.

jivan mukti or jivan moksha (jeevan mukti or jeevan moksha):  Liberation while alive in the physical body.

jnana (jnaana):  Gnosticism; knowledge.

jnana-bhumika (jnaana bhoomika):  Stage or state of knowledge.

jnana-hinata (jnaana-heenata):  Absence of knowledge or un-knowledge.

jnani (jnaani):  Gnostic; one who is wise; one who has divine knowledge.

jyoti:  Splendor, effulgence.

jyotimaya:  Form of effulgence.

kaayastha or kayastha:  A Hindu sub-caste of clerks and scribes to which both Lalaji and Babuji belonged.

Kabir or Kabirdas:  See Saint Kabir.

kalakshapaka:  A person who wastes time.

Kaliyuga:  The current yuga (epoch or era) according to Hindu cosmology.

kama:  Desire; love.

kantha chakra:  Throat plexus.

karana sharir (kaarana shareer):  Causal body.

karma:  Action.

karma indriyas:  Organs or senses of action.

kasbi:  Acquired condition.

Kayastha:  A Hindu caste that traditionally worked as scribes, keeping public records and accounts.

khudahafis:  Goodbye.

kirtan:  Religious hymn, usually in praise of some deity.

kosha:  Sheath. The five sheaths that contain the essence and together comprise a human being are the food-sheath, breath-sheath, mind-sheath, knowledge-sheath, and bliss-sheath.

Krishna:  See Lord Krishna.

Krishna Chakra:  A Divine weapon of Lord Krishna used in the Mahabharata; Krishna’s wheel; see Sudarshan Chakra.

kriya:  Action.

krodha:  Anger.

kshatriyas:  The Hindu warrior caste.

kshipta:  Disturbed condition of mind due to sensations such as hunger, thirst, anger, sorrow, desire of fame and wealth.

kshobh or kshobha:  Jerk or vibration. State of disturbance; loss of equilibrium; stir caused by the will of God to effect creation.

Kuchela:  Also called Sudaama, a childhood friend of Lord Krishna who Krishna raised from poverty later in life because of his true friendship.

kunda:  Referring to the Kundalini; also, a bowl-shaped vessel.

kundalini:  The power which is coiled like a serpent at the base of the spine.

kurbeteye haq:  Going back to the source.

Kurma (Koorma):  Tortoise. The second avatar of Vishnu.

Kurukshetra:  The battlefield in the epic Mahabharata.

kutcha:  Unfinished, raw.

lagan:  Attachment.

lakh:  100,000.

laya:  Mergence, dissolution; hence, release or liberation.

layavastha or laya avastha(a):  The state of complete mergence whereby two become One.

lila (leela):  Divine play.

Lord Krishna:  Most recent incarnation of Vishnu; divine personality in the epic Mahabharata.

Lord Narayana (Lord Naaraayana):  Another name for Vishnu.

Lord Rama (Raama):  Husband of Sita in the Indian epic story Ramayana.

Mahabharat/a (Mahaabhaarat/a):  Great epic of Indian culture and world literature.

mahah:  One of the states of consciousness.

maha-kal-chakra (maha-kaal-chakra):  The Supreme’s wheel. (See footnote in Towards Infinity, discussion on Seventh Knot).

mahamaya (mahaamaayaa):  The divine power of illusion which makes the world to appear as real.

maha nirvana:  Illumined state.

Maha Parishad (mahaa parishad):  The highest cosmic functionary; ruler of the universe.

mahapralaya (mahaapralaya):  State of complete dissolution when everything in existence merges with the Centre. The complete dissolution of the whole universe.

Maharaj (Maharaaj):  Literally, ‘great king.’ Term used to express respect for an elevated soul.

maha samadhi (mahaa samaadhi):  The final samadhi when a saint renounces his body and enters the brighter world.

mahatma (mahaatmaa):  Great soul, saint.

mahato mahiyan:  That which is greater than the greatest.

mahboobiat:  Object of love.

mala:  Impurity.

mamakaara:  Mine-ness.

mananam or manana:  Thinking over.

manas:  Psyche, mind.

manasa lake (manasarovar):  Another name for the Brahmanda Mandal.

mani padma:  The jewel in the Lotus.

manmat(a):  Disciple who approaches a guru for worldly, material goals.

manomaya kosha:  Mind sheath.

mantra or mantram:  A sound repeated over and over again, particularly a sacred sound, word, or phrase.

manushya:  Sanskrit for ‘human being’.

marg or marga (maarga):  Way or path.

math (mutt, matha):  Spiritual organization.

Matsya:  Fish. The first avatar of Vishnu.

Maulana Rumi:  A famous Sufi saint who lived in the 13th century A.D.

maya (maayaa):  Phenomenal appearance. It is really a power of God. All manifestation or expansion that seems illusory is the play of maya. Illusion.

Mirabai:  A 16th century saint, mystic and poet devoted to Lord Krishna

moksha:  Liberation or Salvation. But in Sahaj Marg, both are not the same. "Freedom from bondage is Liberation. It is different from Salvation which is not the end of the process of rebirth." (Reality at Dawn.)

moodha:  Condition of the mind, including the tendencies that cause laziness, indolence and idleness.

moodha bhakti:  Sanskrit for ‘blind faith’ or ‘blind obedience’.

mouna:  Silence.

mudra:  Yogic "seal" or secret practice. Also refers to certain postures and hand gestures.

muhurtam:  Auspicious moment.

mukti:  Liberation.

mumukshu:  A seeker of the spiritual Truth.

mumukshutva:  The last of the four sadhanas (Sadhana Chatushtaya).

muni:  Saint; seer; one who has realised Self.

nabhi (naabhi):  Navel.

nadi (naadhi):  Commonly refers to the pulse beat; subtle channels; any physical tubular organs in the body

namaste (namaskaram):  A greeting meaning ‘salutations to you’.

Narada (Naarada):  A celestial sage; devotee of Lord Vishnu.

naraka:  Hell. A place where souls are sent to expiate their sins.

Narasimha: Avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, often portrayed as half man half lion.

Narayana (Naaraayana):  See Lord Narayana.

nididhyaasanam:  Meditation.

nirakar (niraakaar):  Formless.

nirguna:  Without attributes or qualities.

Nirguna Brahman:  Indeterminate Absolute.

nirmanakaya:  A created body.

nirodha or niruddha:  State in which all the tendencies or modifications of the mind are restrained.

nirvana:  Illuminated state. Liberation.

nirvikalpa sama(a)dhi:  Samadhi in which we are not conscious; ecstasy with the loss of the world-consciousness; consciousness of abstract.

nishkama (nishkaama):  Desireless.

nishkama karma (nishkaama karma):  Work without attachment to the result; desireless action.

nishkama upasana (nishkaama upaasanaa):  Desireless devotion.

nivritti:  Retrogression; destructive return or withdrawal.

niyama or niyam:  Subjected laws which must be followed. They are purity, contentment, austerity, self study, self abandonment (devotion to God).

Noah:  Biblical prophet who built an ark and saved life during the great flood.

nyasa:  Something entrusted to another, put in trust.

ojas:  Splendour; lustre.

omkar:  The sacred syllable "Aum" (OM).

Om shanti or Om santih: Invocation of peace.

paddhati:  A system or tradition. Way of practice.

padmasana (padmaasana):  Lotus position in hatha yoga.

panch agni:  The five fires, or powers, of the five points of the pind pradesh (see footnote in Towards Infinity, discussion on Fifth Knot).

panch agni vidya:  Wisdom of the Five Fires. See panch agni.

pancha bhutas:  The five elements or principles in Hindu cosmology: earth, water, fire, air, and space.

panchamakaara:  The left-hand path, also called Vaamchaara — an esoteric and occult practice of Tantrik schools. They use Matsya (fish), Mamsa (meat), Madhya (alcohol), Mudra (position of fingers during religious worship), Maithuna (copulation) — all beginning with "M" or "Ma," and since there are five of them it is called the Pancha-makaara, or "Five Ma's."

pandal:  Tent.

pandit:  Learned person, well versed in any subject.

Para Brahman:  Indeterminate Absolute; God as the Ultimate Cause of Existence.

para brahmanda:  Supra-cosmic consciousness.

para brahmanda mandal (para brahmaanda mandal): Supra-cosmic region of the mind.

paramanus (paramaanus):  First Mind; Supreme Mind; fine particles.

Paramdham (Paramdhaam):  Supreme abode.

parampara (paramparaa):  Lineage.

Parashurama (Parashuraama):  The sixth incarnation of Lord Vishnu.

parasparam:  Mutual.

parayana (paaraayana):  A recitation of scriptures.

Parishad:  Cosmic functionary below the Maha Parishad who directs the work of the Dhruvadhipatis.

parivrajaka (parivraajaka):  A travelling mendicant.

parlok (paraloka):  The next world; the higher world.

Parvati (Paarvati):  The consort of Shiva.

pasus:  Generally refers to all living things; specifically, to animals; most specifically, to cows.

patala (paataala):  The Hindu netherworld, or underworld.

Patanjali:  Ancient Indian scholar who wrote the Yoga Sutras.

pind or pinda:  Material or gross existence, that which exists in the gross or material state.

pind pradesh (pinda pradesha) or pind desh (pinda desha):  Material sphere, the heart region.

pitru bha(a)va:  Paternal feeling.

Pitruloka:  World of ancestors. Hindu realm between heaven and earth where one’s ancestors reside.

prabhu:  Master; God. Also the condition of Master or God; the experience of being the Master.

Prabhu-prapanna:  Spiritual condition experienced as being both the Master and one who has surrendered.

pradeshas:  Conditions, states.

Prahlada (Prahlaada):  A boy in the Puranas whose faith in Vishnu allows him to survive various attempts on his life by his jealous father.

prajna (prajnaa):  Divine wisdom; consciousness

prakriti:  Nature.

pralaya:  State of dissolution, applied not to the whole universe but only to a part of it.

pramana:  Authority, or valid means of knowledge.

prana (praana):  Life, breath.

pranahuti (praanaahuti):  Process of yogic transmission; derived from prana meaning life and ahuti meaning offering. Offering of the life force by the guru into the disciple’s heart.

pranam:  Respectful salutation; obeisance.

pranamaya kosha:  Breath sheath.

prana pratishtha (praana pratishthaa):  Power to infuse a spiritual force into a picture or idol.

pranasya prana (praanasya praana):  Literally ‘the life of life’.

pranava:  The syllable "Aum."

pranava japa:  Chanting the "Aum," or pranava.

pranayama(a) or pranayam:  Derived from prana (life, vital force) and from ayama (to restrain).  The regulation of prana. Hatha Yoga breathing technique. Fourth step in Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga.

prapanna:  A spiritual stage; also, one who has surrendered.

prapanna-prabhu:  Spiritual condition experienced as being both the Master and one who has surrendered.

prapti-virodhis:  Enemies of our attainment.

prarabdha:  Fate, destiny.

prasad or prasadam (prasaad or prasaadam) :  Divinized food, usually sweet; an offering to Master or God.

prasthana trayee (prasthaana trayee):  The three fundamental orthodox scriptural books of the Hindus; viz., the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras.

pratyahara or pratyahar:  The inner withdrawal of the mind (fifth branch of Patanjali's Yoga).

pratyaksa:  Present before one's vision or eyes.

pravritti:  Progress (constructive); upward growth.

preceptor or prefect:  An abhyasi chosen, prepared, and permitted by the Master to impart spiritual training through the utilization of pranahuti or yogic transmission.

prithvi:  The earth; earth element or principle.

pucca:  Ripe, complete.

puja (poojaa):  Religious traditional practice; in Sahaj Marg, the meditation practice.

pujya:  Revered, respected; used as an honorific at the beginning of a great man's name.

punarjanma:  Rebirth.

pundits:  Scholars.

punya:  Righteous or meritorious action.

Puranas (Puraanas):  Epics. There are eighteen major Puranas and several minor ones. Generally ancient stories about Hindu saints and deities, but they contain a lot of useful information on many branches of science and the arts.

purushartha (purushaartha):  The goal of the human effort — applied at the same time to the purely human goals or the supra-human goals.

purva karma:  Past actions, and their effect.

putramoha:  Attachment to one’s child.

Radha (Raadhaa):  One of the gopis, a lover of Lord Krishna and his beloved.

raja (raajaa):  King.

Raja Bhoja:  Ruler of the Malwa region of India from the beginning of the eleventh century to about 1055. Under his rule, Malwa and its capital Dhara became one of the chief intellectual centres of India. He was a versatile scholar having written numerous book, including on yoga.

Raja Dasharatha (Raajaa Dasharatha) Or Raja Dasharat:  (Surya dynasty) Father of Rama.

Raja Janak:  Father of Sita; a great king known for his spiritual wisdom.

Rajas:  One of the three Gunas. Leads to activity, egoism and selfishness.

Raja Yoga (raaja yoga):  Ancient system or science followed by the great rishis and saints which helped them to realise the Self or God. Usually used for meditative practices, as distinguished from Hatha Yoga.

rakshasas (raakshasas):  Demons.

Rama:  See Lord Rama.

Ramakrishna Paramahamsa:  Saint who lived in Calcutta at the end of the nineteenth century and who was Swami Vivekananda's Master.

Ramanuja:  One of the three acharyas; founder of the Vishishta-advaita system of Vedanta Philosophy.

Ramayan/a (Raamaayan/a):  One of the epic stories of India.

Ram Nam (Rama Nama):  The name of Lord Rama, usually used as a mantra.

Ram Rajya: Rule of Ram. Mahatma Gandhi often used this term to define an ideal form of democratic rule in which all citizens could be sure of justice.

Ravana (Raavana): A Raakshasa (demon) king who ruled Lanka in the era of Ramayana. He is supposed to have had a great knowledge of the Vedas and have possessed enormous powers.

representative:  In Sahaj Marg, a term reserved for that person who is nominated by a Master as successor; the currently incarnated Master and president of Shri Ram Chandra Mission.

richa:  Cosmic recording of all thoughts and events.

Rig Veda:  One of the Vedas. The others are Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Artharvana Veda. It is considered by many to be the most ancient text in the world.

rishi:  Seer; saint.

Rishi Agastya:  Celebrated saint of ancient India.

Rishi Durvasa (Rishi Durvaasa):  An ancient saint noted for his sharp temper.

rudra:  A person possessing the power of rudra-shakti.

rudra-shakti:  Destructive power; power possessed by a rudra of whom Shiva is the personification.

sadguru:  Guru capable of giving the knowledge of Truth.

sadhak (saadhaka):  Disciple who practices a sadhana.

sadhana (saadhana):  Spiritual practice.

Sadhana Chatushtaya (saadhana chatushtaya):  The four-fold spiritual practice: viveka or discrimination; vairagya or detachment; sampatti, meaning spiritual attainments, consisting of six limbs; and mumukshutva, to seek liberation.

sadhu:  Religious or spiritual person.

saguna:  With gunas or characteristics, qualities, and attributes.

Saguna Brahman:  Determinate Absolute.

Saguna Ishwara:  Determinate Absolute; having the quality of Ishwara.

sahaj:  Natural; simple.

sahaj avastha:  Natural state or condition.

Sahaj Marg:  Literally: natural path, simple path.

sahaj samadhi (sahaja samaadhi):  Natural samadhi, considered the highest samadhi: simultaneity of total external awareness with total inner emptiness or absorption.

sahasra dal kamalam (sahasra dala kamala):  Lotus of a thousand petals, located in the frontal lobe of the brain.

sahavasa (sahavaasa):  Association.

Sahib:  A respectful form of address to a man.

Saint Kabir:  The great poet and sage claimed by both Hindus and Muslims who lived in Benares, in the 14th century A.D.

sakara (saakaara):  Tangible form.

Sakha:  Friend.

sakhaya:  Friendship.

sakti divine:  Highest energy.

sakhya bha(a)va:  Friendly feeling.

saloya:  In the same world as another.

samaan:  Similar.

samadhana (samaadhaana):  6th sampatti. State of self-settledness to the Master’s will.

samadhi (samaadhi):  Original balance. State in which we stay attached to Reality. In Sahaj Marg, the return to the original condition, which reigned in the beginning. The eighth limb of Patanjali’s yoga.

Samarth Guru (Samartha Guru):  A perfect guru, who possesses all the saintly qualities.  A perfectly balanced guru.

samatva:  Balance or evenness of mind.

samavastha (samatva):  A balanced state.

samipya:  Nearness.

sampattis:  The third step among the four in the non-dualistic school of Vedanta, consisting of six limbs. This word literally means wealth or state of being or condition.

samskaras (samskaaraas):  Impressions; grossness.

sandhi gati:  Merging of two states.

sandhya:  Meeting point between day and night.

Sandhyavandana (Sandhyaavandana):  Daily ritual which has to be performed by the ‘twice-born’ in the Hindu religion.

sang-e-benamak:  A lump of salt from which saltiness has been taken away.

sankalp (sankalpa):  An act of will; subtle suggestion backed by will.

sankirtanists:  Those who do sankirtan.

sankirtans:  Congregational chants.

sannyasa (sannyaasa):  The path of renunciation.

sannyasi/n (sannyaasi/n):  One who has renounced the world and leads a solitary life of celibacy and asceticism.

Sanskrit:  Culture; also name of the ancient language of India.

sanstha (sansthaa):  Spiritual tradition; organization; group.

Sant Mat:  Path of the saints.

sapta-bhumikas (sapta-bhoomikas):  Seven stages.

Saraswati:  The goddess of learning.

sarupyata (saaroopyata):  Identicality of form. State in which we acquire the same form.

sarvam khalvidam Brahman:  All is truly Brahman.

sarvamukti:  Simultaneous universal emancipation.

Sat:  Truth, Reality, Existence; the Ultimate Principle or Infinity.

Satchidananda (satchidanaanda):  Existence-consciousness-bliss.

Sathayam:  The name of a star in Hindu astrology.

satpad or satyapad:  In Sahaj Marg, the sphere where truth is predominant; a region of light though in a very fine state.

satsang:  Spiritual assembly; being with reality.

satsangi:  One who attends satsang.

sattva:  One of the three gunas. Leads to balance or poise. It manifests in virtuous conduct and brings about happiness.

sattvik (saattvik):  Pertaining to or that which promotes Sattva in the body.

satyam:  One of the states of consciousness. Also means truth.

satyam vada:  Speak the truth.

satyodayam:  The dawn of reality.

sarupya:  Similarity; become one with; having similar form and appearance.

sayodayam: The dawn of reality.

sayujyata:  Close conformity; something identical; become one with.

shaapa:  Harmful or harsh word. Curse.

shabda or ajapa:  Sound, inner vibration within, as opposed to japa.

Shahjahanpur:  City in Uttar Pradesh; birthplace and lifelong home of Babuji.

shakti:  Power.

shama:  Peaceful condition of the mind leading to a state of calmness and tranquility; the first of the shat (six) sampattis.

shankar:  Shiva, one of the Trinity in Hinduism, the others being Brahma and Vishnu.

Shankaracharya:  Ancient saint of India, who propounded the school of Advaita philosophy. He is supposed to have lived in the 8th century AD.

shanti:  Peace; tranquillity.

Shastras (shaastras):  Holy books (scriptures).

shastric:  Of, or pertaining to, the shastras.

shasvatam (shaasvatam):  Permanent; that which is eternal.

shat:  Six.

shat-sampatti:  Six forms of spiritual attainments in the third Vedantic Sadhana, consisting of six forms of spiritual attainments: shama, dama, uparati, titiksha (titikshaa), shraddha (shraddhaa), samadhana (samaadhaana).

shatchakras:  The six chakras or plexuses, symbolically denoted as lotuses, situated in the subtle body. They are:
1. Muladhara, or root chakra, at the perineum
2. Svadhidhtana, at the genitals
3. Manipuraka, navel
4. Anahata, heart
5. Vishudha, throat
6. Ajna, center of the eyebrows

shikar or sikhar:  Crown, top, summit.

shithali:  One which endows with coolness.

Shiva:  One of the Trinity in Hinduism, the others being Brahma and Vishnu.

shraddha (shraddhaa):  Faith; devotion with faith. The fifth sampatti.

shramdan:  An offering of physical labor.

Shri:  A title of respect before a man’s name.

Shri Aurobindoji:  See Aurobindo.

Shri Krishna:  See Lord Krishna.

shruti:  Hearing, listening. Also Vedas.

Shunya (Shoonya):  Empty or void.

siddhis:  Capacity to do miracles; powers.

siddhopaya:  Readily accessible. Also, ready means.

sikhar:  Crown, top.

simooms:  Strong, dry, dusty, desert winds in the Sahara and Arabia.

sitting:  A session of meditation, usually lasting from 30 minutes to an hour, in which the Master or a preceptor meditates with a group or an individual for the purpose of cleaning and transmission.

sloka:  A verse.

sravana or sravanam:  Listening.

srishti:  Era of Creation in the Indian calendar.

sruti:  Revealed knowledge through vibrations. Also the Vedas, or revealed scripture.

sthitaprajna:  One who is established in the Self. Alternatively, one whose consciousness in merged in the Self.

sthula sharir (sthoola shareer):  Gross body.

stotra:  Hymn or prayer addressed to divinity.

Sudarshan Chakra:  Divine weapon of Lord Krishna used in the Mahabharata, a finger-wheel; see Krishna Chakra.

suddha sattva body:  Pure body.

sudras or sjudras or soodras: The fourth and lowest Hindu caste.

Sufi:  An Islamic mystic.

sukshma (sookshma):  Subtle.

sukshma sharir (sookshma shareer):  Astral body, subtle body.

supatra:  Well-deserving person.

surya:  The sun.

suryavamsh/a:  Surya/Solar dynasty.

sushupti:  One of the four states of consciousness. It is described as the consciousness of deep sleep in which a man does not dream. When this state of mind is attained, a man gets in close communion with God, though he remains in a forgetful state.

svar:  One of the states of consciousness.

svadisthana chakra:  The chakra located at the level of the genital organs.

svadhyaya:  Study of holy scriptures combined with practice.

swami or swamiji:  Hindu priest. Saint.

Swami Vivekananda:  A great saint of India who lived in the late 19th and early 20th century, and was a disciple of Ramakrishna Paramahansa.

tam:  The actual state we were in when the world was born. Real state of being.

tamas:  One of the three gunas. Inertness. It leads to inactivity, sloth or procrastination.

Tantric:  Relating to Hindu and Buddhist scriptures dealing especially with techniques and rituals, including meditative and sexual practices.

tanum swam vivernute:  "Reveals its own form."

tapah:  One of the states of consciousness.

tapasvi:  One who does penance, or ascetic practices (tapasya).

tapasya (tapasyaa) or tapas:  Ascetic practices to purify the soul and attract Divine grace. Literally means "heat," and indicates the heat generated by the friction of intense spiritual practice.

taraasu:  Tamil for ‘balance’.

tarka:  Reasoning.

tattvas:  Elements or principles in Hindu cosmology. (See PANCHA BHUTAS.)

thas:  Condition of total grossness.

Thiruvonam:  The name of a star (Sravana in Sanskrit). An auspicious day of the Onam festival celebrated in the Indian state of Kerala.

tilak:  Pigment mark on the forehead.

titiksha (titikshaa):  State of fortitude or forbearance. The 4th sampatti.

Treta Yuga:  The second of the four yugas in the Hindu religion. Lord Rama belonged to this period.

Trikuti:  The point above the nose between the two eyebrows; one of the points of concentration.

Tulsidas:  Sage who wrote the story of the Ramayana in Hindi, or Ram Charat Manas.

turiya (tureeya):  Fourth state; the other three being: jagrat— waking state; swapna— dream state; sushupti— deep sleep state.

turiya avastha:  Fourth state of the soul, when it becomes one with God.

turiyatita (tureeyaateeta):  Beyond the turiya condition, where the soul becomes one with God.

upa:  Sanskrit prefix meaning ‘secondary’ or ‘near’.

udasi:  Detachment; disinterest.

upadan karana (upaadaana kaarana):  Cause which itself results in effect. Thus it may be explained as root cause. See kshobh.

upadesha:  Sermon. Instruction.

upadeshaka:  Instructor; advisor; preacher.

upanayanam:  Opening of the higher eye.

Upanishads:  Vedantic part of the Vedas (Jnaana Kanda).

Upanishadic:  Of, or pertaining to, the Upanishads.

uparashtrapati (uparaashtrapati):  Vice-president.

uparati:  Self-withdrawal. The 3rd sampatti.

upasana (upaasanaa):  Devotion; devotional practice.

utsav:  Religious or spiritual celebration.

uttarayana:  Six month's of the sun's northern path.

vairagya (vairaagya):  Renunciation, detachment.

vaishyas or vyshyas:  The Hindu merchant caste.

Varaha (Varaaha):  Boar. The third avatar of Vishnu.

vasanas:  Past impressions.

Vashishta:  One of the seven great ancient rishis. The guru of Lord Rama in the epic Ramayana.

vasle haq:  Going back to the source.

Vasu:  Refers to the cosmic functionary below the Dhruva, an elevated person who performs the lowest level of godly work entrusted to him.

vayu or vaya:  Air or air principle.

vayu nadi:  The air nadi.

Vedanta (Vedaanta):  Literally the last portion of the Vedas or inner knowledge; one of the six orthodox schools of Indian philosophy.

Vedantic:  Of, or pertaining to, the Vedanta.

vedantists:  Those who follow the school of Vedanta.

Vedas:  Knowledge. Ancient Indian scriptures, in which a superior knowledge is revealed.

Vedic:  Of, or pertaining to, the Vedas.

veena (veenaa):  An Indian stringed musical instrument; lute.

viaticals:  Baggage taken on a journey; things that impede progress.

vidya (vidyaa):  Knowledge; science.

vihara (vihaara):  Buddhist monastery.

vijnanamaya kosha:  Sheath of knowledge.

vikhota vairagya:  False asceticism.

Vikramaditya:  Legendary 1st century emperor of India.

vikshepa:  Distraction; confusion.

vikshipta:  The tendency which drives the mind away from sacred thoughts and brings about the haunting of numerous irrelevant ideas at the time of meditation.

vikrakta:  Recluse.

virat (viraat):  Cosmic. See brahmanda mandal.

virat desh:  See brahmanda mandal.

virat roop (viraat roop):  Cosmic form.

viryam:  Virility; strength.

visesa:  Specific object or quality.

Vishishtadvaita (Vishishtaadvaita):  One of the sub-schools of the Vedanta.

Vishnu:  The preserver; one of the Hindu Trinity, the others being Brahma and Shiva.

vishuddha chakra:  One of the six chakras or plexuses, situated at the base of the throat.

vishvarupa darshana:  Vision of the Lord's Cosmic form.

Vishwamitra (Vishwaamitra):  An ancient king who later became a great saint; the teacher of Lord Rama in the epic Ramayana.

viveka:  Discernment.

viveka shakti:  Power of discrimination.

vivekachudamani:  A text written by Adi Shankaracharya.

Vivekananda (Vivekaananda):  See Swami Vivekananda.

vrittis:  Outward flow of mind; subtle desires or stimuli coming up in the mind causing action; mental tendencies or modifications.

vyavahara:  Connection between people; behavior.

yajnas (yajnaas):  Religious rituals, sacrifices.

yaksha:  A class of semi-divine beings; a living supernatural being.

yaksha prasna:  Series of questions asked by a yaksha to Dharma Putra in the Mahabharata.

yama:  1. Self interdiction. Vow of abstinence of violence, falsity, robbery, unchastity, and tendency to acquire. 2. Lord of Death.

yatra (yaatraa):  Voyage; journey; pilgrimage; the inner spiritual process.

yoga:  A system of Hindu philosophy showing means of emancipation of the soul from further migration, mainly subdivided as Raja Yoga and Hatha Yoga.

yogaja (yogajaa):  Intuitive perception of all objects. One who is born from the yoga practice.

yoganidra (yoganidraa):  A yogi’s spiritual state during which they seem to be asleep but inside they are awake.

yogi or yogin:  One who practices yoga; one who achieves union with the Absolute.

yogic:  Of, or pertaining to yoga.

yuga:  An eon of time measurable in thousands of years.

yuj or yuja or yujya: To join or unite; to yoke.